Monday, March 14, 2016

Grading Policy Part II: Effective Grading

Guest Blogger:  Dr. Kim Ehrhardt
Director of Curriculum, Instruction and Assessment

Best Practices and Effective Grading

Recently, the topic of grading began getting renewed attention in our district and in the local media. The primary purpose of a grading system is to clearly communicate to students and parents about achievement or performance.  Our current high school grading system is largely based on tradition. Each teacher has had the discretion for developing his or her own system for assigning student grades in the School District of Janesville. These separate systems can be confusing for students and parents as their resulting grades communicate different things. AdvancED, the national organization that accredits our high schools, made resolving our inconsistent teacher grading practices a required corrective action; thus, the genesis of the High School Grading Task Force. The charge of the Grading Task Force was to explore the grading issue deeply and make thoughtful recommendations to remedy inconsistency.     

Over 20 Craig and Parker staff members (representing many subject areas) spent the past two years carefully researching the topic, consulting with experts in the field, and then running a pilot to explore the impact of the potential changes at both Craig and Parker high schools. This past Wednesday, March 9, 2016, the High School Grading Task Force provided extensive professional development for the high school staff that detailed their recommendations for changes in grading practices.   

The School District of Janesville prides itself as being an Evidence-Based organization that uses best-practice research as an important foundation to inform our work.  What follows is a summary of research written by Dr. Barbara Blackburn that captures key elements of best practices in grading. These best practices were an important foundation that influenced the Task Force’s work and the professional development that was shared with high school staff. 

Five Tips for Effective Grading:

  • First, give students an opportunity to participate in grading. One effective strategy is to ask students to help develop the grading rubric.  After the teacher shares sample rubrics with students, he or she guides them in creating the criteria for the assignment.  This helps students understand the assignment more effectively and gives them ownership which increases motivation.
  • Next, remove effort, behavior, and attendance from the grading criteria.  Effective grading is based on the quality of work rather than on other factors.  Realistically, giving students extra points for "trying hard" inflates their grades.  Find other ways to reward effort. Additionally, penalizing students for an absence isn't fair. Instead, give students a reasonable amount of time to finish the work.
  • Third, ensure that grading is aligned to the assessment.  This may sound basic, but at times grades don’t match the criteria of the assessment.  Teachers need to be sure their grades reflect the purpose of their assessment.
  • Fourth, don't give zeroes.  This is controversial, as many people believe that if a student doesn't do the work, it deserves a zero. However, zeroes let students “off the hook.”  Unfortunately, some students would rather accept a zero in the grade book than to complete an assessment. If an activity is important enough for teachers to assign, it's important enough for students to complete. Requiring students to complete key assessments is more rigorous and teaches responsibility. Teachers need to remember, though, to provide the instruction and support to help students complete the work.  
  • Finally, extra credit undermines authentic grading. Dr. Blackburn remembers a student in one of her graduate classes whose project was very sloppy.  Parts were not included and there were misspelled words.  The work was unacceptable at the graduate level.  It dropped her grade to a B, and she went to the department chair when Dr. Blackburn wouldn't allow her to do extra credit. Dr. Blackburn’s perspective was that if the student had completed the work in a satisfactory manner, she wouldn't need extra credit. Giving an extra credit opportunity would be rewarding poor work. Be cautious with the use of extra credit.

The Grading Task Force has an extensive bibliography of references from which their examination of best practices has been taken. The bibliography is available on request and includes Dr. Blackburn’s research. On March 28, 2016, the Grading Task Force will make their initial recommendations to the SDJ Board of Education Personnel/Policy/Curriculum Committee.  Stay tuned for future installments of this blog as we continue to communicate additional components of the High School Common Grading Policy.

Dr. Barbara Blackburn is the author of Rigor in Your Classroom. She is a national expert in increasing student rigor, motivation, and engagement in learning and has authored six books on these topics.

Monday, March 7, 2016

High School Grading Task Force

By Dr. Kim Ehrhardt,
Director of Curriculum, Instruction & Assessment

Joint Administrator/Teacher High School Grading Task Force to make Recommended Changes in District Grading Practices

Several years ago, both our high schools were evaluated by the AdvancED Accreditation organization (formerly known as North Central Evaluation) to validate the quality of the educational experiences at both Parker and Craig High Schools.  Both schools received a favorable overall rating; however, one of the areas the accreditation team cited our high schools for was inconsistent teacher grading practices.  On a related matter, the district also received communication from the University of Wisconsin System that over 34 percent of SDJ students (entering the university system) were required to take remedial courses based on poor performance on placement tests. Upon investigation, school administrators determined that while these students had positive GPAs, a lack of consistent grading practices, possible grade inflation and grade inequities were the likely factors responsible for the situation.  

In response, central office and building administrators created the high school grading task force (which included HS teachers and guidance counselors) to explore what “best practices” in secondary school grading are, and then compared those recommended practices with what is current grading reality for students at Craig and Parker.  This coming Wednesday, March 9, 2016, the Grading Task Force will share the results of their two-year study of “best grading practices” and provide SDJ staff with professional development for what they believe needs to change relative to teacher grading beliefs and practices.  

Prior to this official announcement and training, the local media has started to question parts of the Task Forces findings especially related to recommendations for changes in future grading practices. This was followed by a Saturday, March 5, 2016, front page article in The Gazette that effectively pre-empted the official roll-out of the proposed grading recommendations.   The event is unfortunate, since the district is well aware of parental reactions about learning “new information” outside of the normal channels of district communications.

The intent of this blog (and the subsequent posting to follow) is to help clear up some of the confusion that has been generated in the community specifically regarding grading. This first blog will address questionable practices associated with percentage grading and review the recommended changes that the task force is proposing.

Student grading is a complex and sometimes overlooked topic. Nationally, much ado has been made in recent years about the problem of zeros in grading.  School districts in Wisconsin like Sun Prairie, Waunakee and West Allis have responded by stipulating that the lowest grade teachers can assign students is 50 percent rather than a zero. Districts that enact such policies have no intention of giving students credit when no credit was deserved. A 50% is still a failing grade. They do so to eliminate the potentially devastating effects of a zero in a percentage grading system.  This is what is being proposed by the SDJ High School Grading Task Force after two years of thoughtful work and careful examination of best practices in secondary grading.  Interestingly, the zero in not part of the SDJ Board Policy on grading.

Grading Expert, Thomas Guskey states that from his experience in working in some high schools “to recover from a single zero percentage grade, a student must achieve a minimum of nine perfect papers. Attaining that level of performance would challenge the most talented students and may be impossible for most others, especially those who struggle in learning. A single zero can doom a student to failure, regardless of what dedicated effort or level of performance might follow.”

Certainly students need to know that there are consequences for what they do and do not do in school. Negligence should be penalized, but should the penalty be so severe that students have no chance of restitution or recovery regarding their grade?  This is exactly the situation that we face when we work with youth who struggle in school or students who encounter some difficulties during a grading period.   An important belief of the grading committee is that…

Grading should communicate information about student learning in school, not punish students in ways that make recovery from transgressions impossible.

Ironically, the true culprit in this matter is not minimum grades or the zero - it's the percentage grading system.  There is nothing sacred about percentages in grading; however, electronic grading programs developed by software companies (with a fondness for a 0-100 scale) have perpetuated this problem.  The same is true in the School District of Janesville.  For example, if a student skips a test or fails to turn in a major project, they will receive an F. Given the current construct of the electronic grade book, the teacher will need to post a score of 50 in order for the grade to show as an F on the report card.  An F is an F!  Talks continue with our software provider to better align the district grading policy consistent with how the software generates letter grades.

In a percentage grading system, to move from a B to an A generally requires an improvement of 10 percentage points, say from 80% to 90%. But, to move from a zero to a minimum passing grade requires six or seven times that improvement, requiring an increase of 60 to 70 percentage points.  This form of grading identifies 60 or more distinct levels of failure and only 40 levels of success. As educators, our focus should remain on identifying learning successes and with such an unbalanced scale, it can mask a student's true increase in content knowledge.

The solution to this dilemma is simply to do away with percentages in grading and use integers instead: 0-4. Many schools use integers already in calculating grade point averages (GPAs). Colleges and universities throughout the U.S., including the University of Wisconsin system, use the integer grading system as well. If finer gradations are needed, tenths, hundredths, or thousandths can be included. 

In an integer system, teachers can keep the zero and assign it to students when such a grade is deserved. Improving from a zero to a passing grade for those students means moving from zero to one, not from zero to 60 percent or 70 percent. It makes recovery possible. It also helps make grades more accurate reflections of what students have learned and accomplished in school.  The integer system already exists (in part) in our BOE policy for high school grading.  
Refinements of the existing policy will be made as part of the task force recommendations. To be clear, if a student elects to “do nothing” in class and fails to complete any of the assignments they will receive an “F” grade which generate no points toward their grade point average for that course.

Assigning fair and meaningful grades to students will continue to challenge educators at all levels. It requires thoughtful and informed professional judgment by teachers, along with an abiding concern for what best serves the interests of students and their families.  

Once again, we believe the purpose of grading should be to communicate information about student learning in school.

This coming Wednesday, March 9, 2016, the Grading Task Force from both our high schools will be providing in-depth professional development to both Parker and Craig Staff.  The intent of the PD is to present the findings of the grading pilot to all teachers and instruct them in the recommended shift in thinking and practice relative to grading as we begin the 2016-17 school year.  After gauging the reaction from the staff from this professional development, a final recommendation will then be presented to the SDJ Board of Education Personnel/Policy/Curriculum Committee on Monday, March 28, 2016. 

In summary, the purpose of this blog is to help create more clarity regarding the intentions of a shift in how grading occurs in our high schools.  We understand that this change may create the need for continuing education with parents and the public like it has for the professional staff.  Please watch for future installments of this blog. 

Tuesday, March 1, 2016

March is Music in Our Schools Month

Guest Bloggers:
Ruth Banwell, Instrumental Music Teacher
Seth Matuszak, Middle School Orchestra Director
Sarah Lidholm, High School Orchestra Director

March has been officially designated by the National Association for Music Education (NAfME) for the observance of Music in Our Schools Month (MIOSM), the time of year when music education becomes the focus of schools across the nation. It all started in 1973. The purpose is to raise awareness of the importance of music education for all children and to remind citizens that schools is where all children should have access to music. 

What is the role of music in educating our students? Studies have shown positive links between engagement with music and academic achievement. That’s important. But, we believe that music does something even better for our students than what can be measured directly by test scores. Music shapes the way our students understand themselves and the world around them. It allows for deep engagement with learning. It nurtures creativity, curiosity, personal motivation, and emotion. In other words, music is essential to a superior and well-rounded 21st Century education.

Music teachers celebrate MIOSM in many ways.  They offer special performances, lessons, sing-alongs and activities in order to bring their music programs to the attention of administrators, parents, colleagues, and communities. It is important to display the positive benefits that school music brings to students of all ages. 

Janesville’s music program is a rich, diverse part of students’ academic lives. Students are able to participate in a wide range of musical opportunities. Band, orchestra, and choir classes give frequent concerts and a chance to showcase students’ pride in hard work and accomplishment. School musicals combine acting, singing, dancing, and instrumental music into one collaborative, creative performance. Jazz bands, Chamber Orchestras, Pep and Marching bands provide the community with musical experiences that entertain and enhance events. Show choirs give students a chance to sing and dance with a live band and compete at a high level against other groups. Music instruction provides students with musical knowledge and a love for listening and performing that can last a lifetime.

Special Event for Everyone 

The Middle and High Schools’ orchestra program is preparing for a very special event this year featuring world renowned electric violinist Mark Wood. Mark is an Internationally-known professional musician and one of the original founders and former member of the Trans-Siberian Orchestra. He has also performed with artists such as Celine Dion, Billy Joel, and Lenny Kravitz, and many other well known musicians. Mark Wood is also founder of Wood Violins, the premier manufacturer of electric violins, violas, and cellos worldwide.

This spring, Mark will be traveling from New York to Janesville to conduct a two day workshop and concert with our middle and high school orchestra students.  The concert will be held at Craig High School on Thursday, March 31 in the Large Auditorium at 7:30 p.m. Tickets are $10 for adults, $5 for students, and free for children in Kindergarten and younger. Tickets can be purchased at Knapton Musik Knotes, Voigt Music Center, or any of the middle and high schools.  Any remaining tickets will be sold at the door. We hope you consider attending this exciting event and support music in our schools! For more information on Mark Wood, check out his website at